Hugo Grotius understood international law as:

(a) An instrumental foreign policy outlook in which political virtue was equated with astuteness in the development and employment of state power.
(b) Potentially restricting war and expanding peace by clarifying standards of conduct which were insulated against all religious doctrines and could therefore govern the relations of all independent states, Protestant and Catholic alike.
(c) A doctrine and an arrangement whereby the power of one state (or group of states) is checked by the countervailing power of other states.
(d) None of the above.
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