Urbanization may be driven by local and global economic and social changes, and is generally a product of modernization and industrialization.
Urbanization has economic and environmental effects. Economically, urbanization drives up prices, especially real estate, which can force original residents to move to less-desirable neighborhoods.
Environmentally, cities cause “heat islands”, where less vegetation and open soil raise city temperatures by 2 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit.
Recently in developed countries, sociologists have observed suburbanization and counter urbanization, or movement away from cities, which may be driven by transportation infrastructure, or social factors like racism.